Coordination Compounds

Compounds in which transition metals make several anions or neutral molecules are called coordination compounds. Ex: Chlorofyll, haemoglobin, vitamin B-12 etc.

Werner’s theory for coordination compounds: In 1898, a swiss chemist propounded his theory of coordination compounds. The main points of this theory are as follows:

1. Metals show two types of linkages or valences- primary and secondary in coordination compounds.

2. The primary valences are normally ionisable and are satisfied by anions(negative ions).

3. The secondary valences are nonionisable.

4. The ions/groups bound by the secondary linkages to the metal have characteristic spatial arrangements corresponding to different coordination numbers.

Isomerism in coordination compounds: Compounds having same molecular formula but different structures are called and this phenomenon is called isomerism.

Coordination compounds show two types isomerism: 1. Structural isomerism and 2. Stereo isomerism

I.Structural isomerism : Isomerism due the difference in the structures of compounds is called structural isomerism. This isomerism is of four types:

2. Stereo or space isomerism : The isomerism due to the different relative positions of the ligands is known as stereo isomerism. This isomerism is of two types :

I. Geometrical isomerism : The isomerism in which isomers differ in the spatial distribution of atoms or groups about the central atom is known as geometrical isomerism. It is also known as cis-trans isomerism.

Ex :

Hydrocarbon

Definition: The compounds which are made up of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons.

Types of hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons are of mainly three types:

I. Saturated, II. Unsaturated and III. Aromatic

I. Saturated hydrocarbons: Such hydrocarbons which are formed by C-C single bond or C-H single bond are called saturated hydrocarbons.

II. Unsaturated hydrocarbons: Such hydrocarbons which are formed by C-C double or triple or both bonds are called unsaturated hydrocarbons.

Isolation of elements

Intro: Only a few elements are available in free state. Maximum elements specially metals are found in combined form in earth’s crust. To obtain a metal we have to find such a mineral by mining so that the process to find the metal may be feasible and economical.

Organic Chemistry Basics

The branch of Chemistry which deals with the compounds of carbon is called Organic Chemistry.

Importance of organic chemistry: Without carbon we can’t imagine life on the earth. The number of compounds of only carbon is equal to the number of compounds of all other elements. Many useful products like clothes, rubber, medicines, fuel etc are only due to carbon.

Electrochemistry

Electrochemistry is the study of production or consumption of electrical energy in a chemical reaction.

Many chemicals are formed by chemical reactions in which electricity is used. For example: sodium hydroxide, chlorine, fluorine etc.

Electrochemical cells:

I. Galvanic or voltaic cell:

Chemical Kinetics

In chemical kinetics, we study about the rate chemical reactions and their mechanism.

Factors that affect a chemical reaction: 1. Concentration, 2. Temperature, 3. Pressure, 4. Catalyst

Rate of reaction: If we have a reaction as follows:

then:

Average rate of decreasing of the reactant=R/t

Instantaneous rate of increasing the product=P/t

Instantaneous rate of decreasing of the reactant=d[R]/dt

Instantaneous rate of increasing of the product=d[P]/dt

where [R] and [P] are the concentrations of reactant and product respectively.

Solutions

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. The substance with largest amount is called solvent and other substances with lesser amounts are called solute.

Ex:

Binary solution : A solution having only two components is called a binary solution.

Airmen : A career with pride & glory

If you are passionate about the Air Force, you can choose to become an airman as a career. It provides you an opportunity to serve the nation and also to become a part of Indian Defence Services.

For the selection of airmen a board has been formed which is called CASD(Central Airmen Selection Board).It selects airmen through two procedures-

[I]All India Selection Tests & [II]Recruitment Rallies. Advertisements or notices about both procedures are published in Employment News/Rozgar Samachar or different national/regional newspapers. There are two categories of Air Men- Group-”X” And Group-”Y”

The trades in these groups are as follows:

Group-‘’X’’ Group-‘’Y’’
Technical Non-technical Technical Non-Technical
Automobile Fitter Education Instructor

[Enrolled In the rank of Sergent(Under/Training)]

Auto Technician Adm Assistant
Electronics Fitter Accts Assistant
Electrical Fitter Medical Assistant
Mechanical Fitter Logistics Assistant
Mechanical System Fitter Environmental Support Services Assistant(ESSA)
Structure Fitter Communication Technitian Ops Assistant
Propulsion Fitter Meteorological Assistant
Workshop Fitter(Smith) Group Training Instructor
Workshop Fitter(Mechanical) Indian Air Force(Police)
Weapon Fitter Indian Air Force(Security)
Musician

General Information-

Group Age
(As on date of
Enrolment)
Educational Qualification
GROUP ‘X’
trades
(Except
Education
Instructor)
17 – 21 Years Passed Intermediate / 10+2 / equivalent examination withMathematics, Physics and English, with minimum 50% marks in aggregate and 50% marks in English

OR

Three years Diploma course in Engineering (Mechanical / Electrical / Electronics / Automobile / Computer Science / Instrumentation Technology / Information Technology) from a Government recognised Polytechnic Institure with minimum 50% marks in overall aggregate, and 50% marks in English in Diploma or in Intermediate / Matriculation if English is not a subject in Diploma

Group ‘X’ :
Education

Instructor

Trade
20-25 Years Graduate in Arts, Commerce or Science with B. Ed degree ortwo years teaching experience in a Government recognised School/College, with minimum 50% marks in aggregate in Graduation as well as B. Ed

OR

20-28 Years Passed MA English / M Sc in Mathematics, Physics, Computer Science / MCA with B Ed degree or 2 Years teaching experience in a Government recognised School / College
Group ‘Y’
Trades
( Except Med

Asst and

Musician)
17-21 Years Passed Intermediate / 10+2 / equivalent examination in any stream / subject approved by Central / State Education Boards with minimum 50% marks in aggregate and 50% marks in English

OR

Passed two years vocational course affiliated / recognised by CBSE / State Education Boards / Councils duly recognised at par with 10+2 by AIU with minimum 50 % marks in aggregate, and50% marks in English in Vocational Course or in Intermediate / Matriculation if English is not a subject in Vocational Course

Group ‘Y’ :
Med Asst

Trade
17-21 Years Passed 10+2 / Intermediate / equivalent exam with Physics, Chemistry, Biology and English with a minimum of 50% marks in aggregate and 50% marks in English
Group ‘Y’ :
Musician

Trade
17-25 Years Passed Matriculation / 10th class or equivalent with minimum pass marks from any Government recognised School/Boards and proficient in playing at least one of the following musical instruments:
Trumpet / Bass / Violin / Saxophone / Clarinet / Euphonium / Jazz-Drum / Piccolo / Bass Trombone / Key Board / Guitar / Sarod / Viola / Cello / Contra Bass (String Bass).

f Block Elements(Inner Transition Metals)

The elements in the f-block are called inner transition elements. These metals are divided into two categories: 4f & 5f series

The elements in 4f series are called Lanthanoids and those in the 5f series are called Actinoids.

Transition Metals

The elements in d-block are called transition elements. The d-block is from 3rd group to 12th group.

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